⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Imperialism English Language

Friday, May 28, 2021 2:27:54 PM

Imperialism English Language

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Bilingualism and the Cultural Imperialism of language - Zoe Maria Pace - TEDxCardiffUniversity

Containing what is arguably the densest concentration of English speakers, the United States population speaks the language with a distinct vocabulary and accent. The form of English spoken by the United States population is merely a dialect, tangentially developing with the language as a whole. A study of the dialect would highlight an array of diverse factors and provide several lenses that could be taken to analyze the…. The imperial dominance of economic impetus on global capital has propagated a contemporary gravitation towards English as a common global language. As the United States has been the country primarily responsible for the global proliferation of capital as well as home to the largest native English speaking population in the world, it would be a natural assumption to think that English would be mandated as the official language of the country.

It is not. Although the supremacy of the English language in the United States remains a prevalent, unequivocal notion, the US itself was founded on doctrines protecting the inalienable rights of a multicultural nation, declaring the freedom granted to its citizens to be self-evident. Proponents of…. The authors seek to challenge the historical view of the British Empire, claiming that the traditional view of acquisition, administration and exploitation of empire…. Paine argues in biblical references that monarchy originated in sin. He also talks about how in the early stages of the world everyone was treated as equals and because of many different circumstances there were now different rights everybody, even different rights for the colonists and British citizens.

He shares his feelings about the current situation of America at that time. Paine tells why British rule is wrong for the future United States. Paine argued that the English government had to much power and people thought that power war spreading equally but it was not. Having a king who lived six thousand miles away just was not going to work. Because it took six months to take one command or law to America. The relationships between languages have BLAH. This quote can be used as a reference because he gives different examples of authors and theorists that offer insight on whether or not the changing of the English language, is good or bad for our culture.

He mentions these questions before talking about perspectivist and how they believe we can stop our generation from a disaster. If so, which accents or varieties of American speech will that leave out? Whom will it disenfranchise because of their dialect- African Americans, Hispanics, Cajuns in Louisiana? British English is a very formal form of the English language. Our spelling of the same words even differ from each other. In the United States of America we spell words like color and favorite while the UK spells these same words colour and favourite.

The formal, or British, version of the word has a u for dictation and pronunciation purposes. The reason page 71 and on was chosen was because Bryson uses logos to list the reasons English has changed and elaborates them. These reasons are elaborated further in the book, but page 71 is where they are summarized. Bryson lists the major reasons in this list which are: Words are created by error, are adopted from other languages, changed through doing nothing, by changing the word, and just by being created.

Bryson also brings up that English has come from many languages because of adoption. This was the conclusion of a recent NGO study. The second was "Language myth cripples Pakistan's schools". The myth is the belief that studying English is all you need for success in life. Policies influenced by this myth prevent most children from accessing relevant education. The background is that in November the US state department and Tesol International Association recently renamed announced a partnership to meet the global demand for English and to "Work in co-ordination with US companies, universities, publishers, and other ELT stakeholders to enhance their international outreach and operations".

This drive is modelled on the success of the British Council in expanding British influence worldwide. Is Anglo-American expertise really relevant in all such contexts? In fact educational "aid" worldwide does not have a strong record of success. There is scholarly evidence, for instance from Spain, that primary English is not an unmitigated success story: quite the opposite. For Namibia a great deal of educational language planning was undertaken at the United Nations Institute for Namibia prior to independence. I summarised this in my book Linguistic Imperialism OUP, , quoting solid evidence that an over-reliance on English was inappropriate.

Yet this is what British Council "advisers" in independent Namibia were instrumental in implementing. British policies in Africa and Asia have aimed at strengthening English rather than promoting multilingualism, which is the social reality. Underlying British ELT have been key tenets — monolingualism, the native speaker as the ideal teacher, the earlier the better etc — which the same book diagnoses as fundamentally false. They underpin linguistic imperialism. British goals both in the colonial period and today are primarily political and commercial. ELT is of massive importance for the British economy. This underlies expansion efforts in India and China, where it has had very mixed success, except perhaps in commercial terms.

David Graddol's report English Next India , commissioned by the British Council, uses similar arguments to those articulated years earlier by Thomas Babington Macaulay, a senior British administrator, in making a case for British involvement in Indian education. Influence on the learning of English may be as ineffectual as in Namibia, in this very different context. Unesco has stressed the significance of the mother tongue for over 50 years. But why is it that an NGO and a private consortium "discover" facts that have been known in many scholarly circles for 40 years but that ELT has failed to effectively engage with? The research evidence on mother tongue-based multilingual education is unambiguous.

English-medium education in postcolonial contexts that neglects mother tongues and local cultural values is clearly inappropriate and ineffective. There are ELT voices calling for a paradigm shift.

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