⒈ Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War

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Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War



Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War the Tet Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War and Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War decreasing support among the U. Archived from the original on 2 August The Vietnam War has been featured extensively Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War television, film, video games, Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War and literature in the participant countries. The Strategic Hamlet Program was initiated in late From 1776 To 1870: A Historical Analysis

Vietnam War, 1970: CBS camera rolls as platoon comes under fire

By the late s, one quarter of all court cases dealt with the draft, including men accused of draft-dodging and men petitioning for the status of conscientious objector. The charges of unfairness led to the institution of a draft lottery for the year in which a young man's birthday determined his relative risk of being drafted September 14 was the birthday at the top of the draft list for ; the following year July 9 held this distinction. The execution provided an iconic image that helped sway public opinion in the United States against the war. The events of Tet in early as a whole were also remarkable in shifting public opinion regarding the war. While the Tet Offensive provided the U. In , President Lyndon B. Johnson began his re-election campaign.

Eugene McCarthy ran against him for the nomination on an anti-war platform. McCarthy did not win the first primary election in New Hampshire , but he did surprisingly well against an incumbent. The resulting blow to the Johnson campaign, taken together with other factors, led the President to make a surprise announcement in a March 31 televised speech that he was pulling out of the race. He also announced the initiation of the Paris Peace Negotiations with Vietnam in that speech.

Then, on August 4, , U. After breaking with Johnson's pro-war stance, Robert F. Kennedy entered the race on March 16 and ran for the nomination on an anti-war platform. Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey , also ran for the nomination, promising to continue to support the South Vietnamese government. In May , Life magazine published in a single issue photographs of the faces of the roughly or so American servicemen who had been killed in Vietnam during a "routine week" of war in the spring of About 15 million Americans took part in the demonstration of October 15, making it the largest protests in a single day up to that point.

Civil Affairs units, while remaining armed and under direct military control, engaged in what came to be known as " nation-building ": constructing or reconstructing schools, public buildings, roads and other infrastructure ; conducting medical programs for civilians who had no access to medical facilities; facilitating cooperation among local civilian leaders; conducting hygiene and other training for civilians; and similar activities. This policy of attempting to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people, however, often was at odds with other aspects of the war which sometimes served to antagonize many Vietnamese civilians and provided ammunition to the anti-war movement.

These included the emphasis on " body count " as a way of measuring military success on the battlefield, civilian casualties during the bombing of villages symbolized by journalist Peter Arnett 's famous quote, "it was necessary to destroy the village to save it" , and the killing of civilians in such incidents as the My Lai massacre. In the documentary Hearts and Minds sought to portray the devastation the war was causing to the South Vietnamese people, and won an Academy Award for best documentary amid considerable controversy. The South Vietnamese government also antagonized many of its citizens with its suppression of political opposition, through such measures as holding large numbers of political prisoners, torturing political opponents, and holding a one-man election for President in Covert counter-terror programs and semi-covert ones such as the Phoenix Program attempted, with the help of anthropologists, to isolate rural South Vietnamese villages and affect the loyalty of the residents.

Despite the increasingly depressing news of the war, many Americans continued to support President Johnson's endeavors. Aside from the domino theory mentioned above, there was a feeling that the goal of preventing a communist takeover of a pro-Western government in South Vietnam was a noble objective. Many Americans were also concerned about saving face in the event of disengaging from the war or, as President Richard M. Nixon later put it, "achieving Peace with Honor. However, anti-war feelings also began to rise. Many Americans opposed the war on moral grounds, appalled by the devastation and violence of the war.

Others claimed the conflict was a war against Vietnamese independence, or an intervention in a foreign civil war ; others opposed it because they felt it lacked clear objectives and appeared to be unwinnable. Many anti-war activists were themselves Vietnam veterans , as evidenced by the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War. By this time, it had also become commonplace for the most radical anti-war demonstrators to prominently display the flag of the Viet Cong "enemy", an act which alienated many who were otherwise morally opposed to the war. As the Vietnam War continued to escalate, public disenchantment grew and a variety of different groups were formed or became involved in the movement.

African-American leaders of earlier decades like W. Du Bois were often anti-imperialist and anti-capitalist. By the middle of the decade, open condemnation of the war became more common, with figures like Malcolm X and Bob Moses speaking out. Soon Martin Luther King Jr. The Black Panther Party vehemently opposed U. In March , King first criticized the war during the Selma march when he told a journalist that "millions of dollars can be spent every day to hold troops in South Vietnam and our country cannot protect the rights of Negroes in Selma". When SNCC-backed Georgia Representative Julian Bond acknowledged his agreement with the anti-war statement, he was refused his seat by the State of Georgia, an injustice which he successfully appealed up to the Supreme Court.

Some participants in ghetto rebellions of the era had already associated their actions with opposition to the Vietnam War, and SNCC first disrupted an Atlanta draft board in August We won't go! On April 4, , King gave a much publicized speech entitled " Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence " at the Riverside Church in New York, attacking President Johnson for "deadly Western arrogance", declaring that "we are on the side of the wealthy, and the secure, while we create a hell for the poor". Black antiwar groups opposed the war for similar reasons as white groups, but often protested in separate events and sometimes did not cooperate with the ideas of white antiwar leadership.

As a result, black enlisted men themselves protested and began the resistance movement among veterans. After taking measures to reduce the fatalities, apparently in response to widespread protest, the military brought the proportion of blacks down to Within these groups, however, many African American women were seen as subordinate members by black male leaders.

Many artists during the s and s opposed the war and used their creativity and careers to visibly oppose the war. Their pieces often incorporated imagery based on the tragic events of the war as well as the disparity between life in Vietnam and life in the United States. Visual artists Ronald Haeberle , Peter Saul , and Nancy Spero , among others, used war equipment, like guns and helicopters, in their works while incorporating important political and war figures, portraying to the nation exactly who was responsible for the violence.

Filmmakers such as Lenny Lipton , Jerry Abrams, Peter Gessner, and David Ringo created documentary-style movies featuring actual footage from the antiwar marches to raise awareness about the war and the diverse opposition movement. Playwrights like Frank O'Hara , Sam Shepard , Robert Lowell , Megan Terry , Grant Duay, and Kenneth Bernard used theater as a vehicle for portraying their thoughts about the Vietnam War, often satirizing the role of America in the world and juxtaposing the horrific effects of war with normal scenes of life.

Regardless of medium, antiwar artists ranged from pacifists to violent radicals and caused Americans to think more critically about the war. Art as war opposition was quite popular in the early years of the war, but soon faded as political activism became the more common and most visible way of opposing the war. Many Asian -Americans were strongly opposed to the Vietnam War. They saw the war as being a bigger action of U. One of the major reasons leading to their significance was that the BAACAW was "highly organized, holding biweekly ninety-minute meetings of the Coordinating Committee at which each regional would submit detailed reports and action plans. The anti-war sentiment by Asian Americans was fueled by the racial inequality that they faced in the United States.

As historian Daryl Maeda notes, "the antiwar movement articulated Asian Americans' racial commonality with Vietnamese people in two distinctly gendered ways: identification based on the experiences of male soldiers and identification by women. They were referred to as gooks and had a racialized identity in comparison to their non-Asian counterparts. There was also the hypersexualization of Vietnamese women which in turn affected how Asian American women in the military were treated. This in turn led to women's leadership in the Asian American antiwar movement. Patsy Chan, a "Third World" activist, said at an antiwar rally in San Francisco , "We, as Third World women [express] our militant solidarity with our brothers and sisters from Indochina.

We, as Third World people know of the struggle the Indochinese are waging against imperialism, because we share that common enemy in the United States. Both Boggs and Kochiyama were inspired by the civil rights movement of the s and "a growing number of Asian Americans began to push forward a new era in radical Asian American politics. Much Asian-Americans spoke against the war because of the way that the Vietnamese were referred within the U. There were also Asian American musicians who traveled around the United States to oppose the imperialist actions of the American government, specifically their involvement in Vietnam. Through this play, "Escueta establishes equivalencies between his protagonist, a Filipino American soldier named Andy, and the Vietnamese people.

Steve Louie remembers that while the white antiwar movement had 'this moral thing about no killing,' Asian Americans sought to bring attention to 'a bigger issue The clergy, often a forgotten group during the opposition to the Vietnam War, played a large role as well. The clergy covered any of the religious leaders and members including individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. In his speech "Beyond Vietnam" King stated, "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today: my own government. For the sake of those boys, for the sake of this government, for the sake of the hundreds of thousands trembling under our violence, I cannot be silent. The involvement of the clergy did not stop at King though. The analysis entitled "Social Movement Participation: Clergy and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement" expands upon the anti-war movement by taking King, a single religious figurehead, and explaining the movement from the entire clergy's perspective.

The clergy were often forgotten though throughout this opposition. The analysis refers to that fact by saying, "The research concerning clergy anti-war participation is even more barren than the literature on student activism. Based on the results found, they most certainly did not believe in the war and wished to help end it. In basic summary, each specific clergy from each religion had their own view of the war and how they dealt with it, but as a whole, the clergy was completely against the war.

The first draft lottery since World War II in the United States was held on December 1, and was met with large protests and a great deal of controversy; statistical analysis indicated that the methodology of the lotteries unintentionally disadvantaged men with late year birthdays. Over 30, people left the country and went to Canada, Sweden, and Mexico to avoid the draft. To gain an exemption or deferment, many men attended college, though they had to remain in college until their 26th birthday to be certain of avoiding the draft. Some men were rejected by the military as 4-F unfit for service failing to meet physical, mental, or moral standards. All of these issues raised concerns about the fairness of who got selected for involuntary service, since it was often the poor or those without connections who were drafted.

Ironically, in light of modern political issues, a certain exemption was a convincing claim of homosexuality , but very few men attempted this because of the stigma involved. Also, conviction for certain crimes earned an exclusion, the topic of the anti-war song " Alice's Restaurant " by Arlo Guthrie. Even many of those who never received a deferment or exemption never served, simply because the pool of eligible men was so huge compared to the number required for service, that the draft boards never got around to drafting them when a new crop of men became available until or because they had high lottery numbers and later.

Of those soldiers who served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs, [45] which resulted in fragging and many other activities which hampered the US's ability to wage war effectively. Most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states. Student opposition groups on many college and university campuses seized campus administration offices, and in several instances forced the expulsion of ROTC programs from the campus.

Some Americans who were not subject to the draft protested the conscription of their tax dollars for the war effort. War tax resistance , once mostly isolated to solitary anarchists like Henry David Thoreau and religious pacifists like the Quakers , became a more mainstream protest tactic. As of , an estimated ,—, people were refusing to pay the excise taxes on their telephone bills, and another 20, were resisting part or all of their income tax bills. Among the tax resisters were Joan Baez and Noam Chomsky. Momentum from the protest organizations and the war's impact on the environment became focal point of issues to an overwhelmingly main force for the growth of an environmental movement in the United States. Protest to American participation in the Vietnam War was a movement that many popular musicians shared in, which was a stark contrast to the pro-war compositions of artists during World War II.

While composers created pieces affronting the war, they were not limited to their music. Often protesters were being arrested and participating in peace marches and popular musicians were among their ranks. As the war continued, and with the new media coverage, the movement snowballed and popular music reflected this. As early as the summer of , music-based protest against the American involvement in Southeast Asia began with works like P. Sloan 's folk rock song Eve of Destruction , recorded by Barry McGuire as one of the earliest musical protests against the Vietnam War. A key figure on the rock end of the antiwar spectrum was Jimi Hendrix — Hendrix had a huge following among the youth culture exploring itself through drugs and experiencing itself through rock music.

He was not an official protester of the war; one of Hendrix's biographers contends that Hendrix, being a former soldier, sympathized with the anticommunist view. With the song " Machine Gun ", dedicated to those fighting in Vietnam, this protest of violence is manifest. Songs such as "Star Spangled Banner" showed individuals that "you can love your country, but hate the government. Although this song was not on music charts probably because it was too radical, it was performed at many public events including the famous Woodstock music festival It was said that "the happy beat and insouciance of the vocalist are in odd juxtaposition to the lyrics that reinforce the sad fact that the American public was being forced into realizing that Vietnam was no longer a remote place on the other side of the world, and the damage it was doing to the country could no longer be considered collateral, involving someone else.

Along with singer-songwriter Phil Ochs , who attended and organized anti-war events and wrote such songs as "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and "The War Is Over", another key historical figure of the antiwar movement was Bob Dylan. Folk and Rock were critical aspects of counterculture during the Vietnam War [60] both were genres that Dylan would dabble in. His success in writing protest songs came from his pre-existing popularity, as he did not initially intend on doing so. We followed his career as if he were singing our songs.

To complement "Blowin' in the Wind" Dylan's song " The Times they are A-Changin' " alludes to a new method of governing that is necessary and warns those who currently participate in government that the change is imminent. Dylan tells the "senators and congressmen [to] please heed the call. John Lennon , former member of the Beatles, did most of his activism in his solo career with wife Yoko Ono. Given his immense fame due to the success of the Beatles, he was a very prominent movement figure with the constant media and press attention. Still being proactive on their honeymoon, the newlyweds controversially held a sit-in, where they sat in bed for a week answering press questions. They held numerous sit-ins, one where they first introduced their song "Give Peace a Chance".

Lennon and Ono's song overshadowed many previous held anthems, as it became known as the ultimate anthem of peace in the s, with their words "all we are saying Within the United States military various servicemembers would organize to avoid military duties and individual actors would also carry out their own acts of resistance. The movement consisted of the self-organizing of active duty members and veterans in collaboration with civilian peace activists. By the United States military would become so demoralized that the military would have severe difficulties properly waging war. There was a great deal of civic unrest on college campuses throughout the s as students became increasingly involved in the Civil Rights Movement , Second Wave Feminism , and anti-war movement.

Doug McAdam explains the success of the mass mobilization of volunteers for Freedom Summer in terms of "Biographical Availability", where individuals must have a certain degree of social, economic, and psychological freedom to be able to participate in large scale social movements. David Meyers also explains how the concept of personal efficacy affects mass movement mobilization.

At this time, America was a superpower and enjoyed great affluence after thirty years of depression, war, and sacrifice. Benjamin T. Harrison argues that the post World War II affluence set the stage for the protest generation in the s. The Anti-war movement became part of a larger protest movement against the traditional American Values and attitudes. Meyers builds off this claim in his argument that the "relatively privileged enjoy the education and affirmation that afford them the belief that they might make a difference. In one instance, John William Ward , then president of Amherst College , sat down in front of Westover Air Force Base near Chicopee, Massachusetts, along with students, some faculty, and his wife Barbara to protest against Richard Nixon's escalation of offensive bombing in Southeast Asia.

College enrollment reached 9 million by the end of the s. Colleges and universities in America had more students than ever before, and these institutions often tried to restrict student behavior to maintain order on the campuses. To combat this, many college students became active in causes that promoted free speech, student input in the curriculum, and an end to archaic social restrictions. Students joined the antiwar movement because they did not want to fight in a foreign civil war that they believed did not concern them or because they were morally opposed to all war. Others disliked the war because it diverted funds and attention away from problems in the U. Intellectual growth and gaining a liberal perspective at college caused many students to become active in the antiwar movement.

Another attractive feature of the opposition movement was the fact that it was a popular social event. Most student antiwar organizations were locally or campus-based, including chapters of the very loosely co-ordinated Students for a Democratic Society , because they were easier to organize and participate in than national groups. Common antiwar demonstrations for college students featured attempts to sever ties between the war machine and universities through burning draft cards , protesting universities furnishing grades to draft boards, and protesting military and Dow Chemical job fairs on campus. Protests grew after the Kent State shootings , radicalizing more and more students.

By the early s, most student protest movements died down due to President Nixon's de-escalation of the war, the economic downturn, and disillusionment with the powerlessness of the antiwar movement. Women were a large part of the antiwar movement, even though they were sometimes relegated to second-class status within the organizations or faced sexism within opposition groups. Female soldiers serving in Vietnam joined the movement to battle the war and sexism, racism, and the established military bureaucracy by writing articles for antiwar and antimilitary newspapers. It is now the last remaining incident of mass casualties that remains worse than the toll of COVID Please send any tips, leads, and stories to virus time.

Write to Olivia B. Waxman at olivia. Pablo Monsalve—Corbis via Getty Images. By Olivia B. The Americans launched their assault near the border with North Vietnam using helicopters, tanks, and naval ships. North Vietnam claimed that it had won, however, since they kept the US forces out of their territory. This was the first major battle between US forces and North Vietnam in Ia Drang was part of the second phase from November 14 to 18 when the VC launched a conventional attack on US forces that deployed by helicopter close to their main supply bases and the border.

Instead of employing their usual guerrilla tactics they went head to head trying to overrun the Americans. They were beaten off and despite high casualties, both sides declared a victory. It taught the Americans to stick to their superior air power, and the VC to stick to guerrilla warfare. The VC surrounded the base and used anti-aircraft missiles to prevent planes and helicopters from providing reinforcements. It was only in March that Operation Pegasus a land-based rescue was able to provide reinforcements and supplies. It could not, however, remove the personnel.

While the VC won, it was just a distraction, allowing North Vietnam to position their troops deeper into the South.

Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War media. Female soldiers serving in Vietnam joined the Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War to battle the war and sexism, racism, and the established military bureaucracy by writing articles for antiwar and antimilitary newspapers. Then the Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War would move in Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War Lysander And Hermias Relationship an area with the chemical. Bythe Deadly Conflict: The Vietnam War was 72,